Affected by national policies, electric municipal sanitation garbage truck will become the development trend in the next few years. At present, the private consumption market of new energy vehicles is not mature, and the promotion of new energy vehicles in China is mainly in the public sector. Therefore, after Beijing, Shanghai and other cities require a certain proportion of government procurement of sanitation vehicles, especially the recent environmental protection efforts are further strengthened, the procurement of sanitation vehicles in other domestic cities will also present new energy.
Ruibao y17 pure electric garbage truck
Pure electric sanitation garbage truck and natural gas sanitation garbage truck usher in good opportunities
Under the pressure of energy supply and environmental protection, the development of new energy vehicles has been included in the national development strategy. In 2014, the guiding opinions of the general office of the State Council on accelerating the promotion and application of new energy vehicles put forward that pure electric drive is the main strategic orientation for the development of new energy vehicles, and at present, public service vehicles are regarded as a breakthrough for the promotion and application of new energy vehicles. As a part of public service, the government of each new energy vehicle demonstration and promotion city will also purchase and use electric sanitation garbage truck as a part of the new energy vehicle promotion and application work plan.
From the promotion and application in the field of environmental sanitation, pure electric sanitation garbage truck has become the main object of promotion and use by government departments. Pure electric sanitation garbage truck has the advantages of relatively simple and mature technology, convenient charging, zero emission and low noise, which can greatly reduce the content of air pollutants and reduce the problem of disturbing residents during operation.
In the past two years, with the government departments at all levels increasing financial subsidies for the promotion and application of new energy vehicles in public services such as sanitation, the pure electric sanitation garbage truck has ushered in a "blowout" development, and the pure electric sanitation garbage truck industry has also ushered in a good development opportunity. As of the 273rd batch of announcement of "vehicle manufacturers and products" issued by the Ministry of industry and information technology, 207 effective announcements of pure electric sanitation vehicles have been made, involving 19 models of 46 sanitation vehicle refitting enterprises.
At present, more enterprises pay attention to the pure electric sanitation garbage truck
As a part of the public service field, environmental sanitation system is one of the key fields in the promotion and application of national new energy vehicles. The governments of new energy vehicle demonstration and promotion cities are actively promoting the application of new energy vehicles in the public service field, increasing investment, increasing the operation proportion of pure electric sanitation garbage trucks in the new sanitation vehicles, and accelerating the supporting charging facilities The construction foundation of the project. The development of pure electric sanitation garbage truck has been unstoppable, and more and more enterprises will launch electric sanitation garbage truck.
Looking forward to the future, with the continuous progress of urbanization, the extension of urban roads, the increasing of domestic waste, the pressure of environmental protection is also increasing. In addition to increasing the number of pure electric sanitation vehicles, there is an urgent need to use pure electric sanitation vehicles with large garbage loading capacity and long operation time. The increase of garbage loading capacity and the extension of operation time are based on the fact that the pure electric sanitation vehicle has light servicing weight, large rated loading weight and long battery mileage, which requires the pure electric sanitation vehicle chassis enterprises and refitting enterprises to try to carry out lightweight design on its chassis, upper loading and other structural parts, and choose lightweight driving motor and power Battery and other key parts. With the continuous deepening of the research on the key parts of new energy vehicles and the continuous overcoming of technical problems, the batteries of new energy vehicles with large capacity, high specific energy, fast charging, small volume and small mass, as well as the permanent magnet motors with high power density, high power factor, small volume, small mass and high performance will have a broader application prospect in the pure electric sanitation garbage truck, while the density is small In the future, carbon fiber composite materials with good rigidity and high strength may become an important development direction of the main structural materials such as the body, chassis and top of pure electric sanitation garbage truck.
Knowledge of pure electric sanitation vehicle
Pure electric sanitation vehicles are divided into three categories
Pure electric sanitation vehicles can be divided into three categories according to the classification of garbage collection and transfer vehicle, manure suction vehicle and pure electric sweeper. From the perspective of vehicle types, pure electric garbage truck, pure electric van garbage truck and pure electric garbage transfer vehicle all belong to the category of pure electric dump garbage truck, pure electric road sweeper belongs to the category of pure electric road sweeper, and pure electric road maintenance vehicle with total mass less than 3.5t belongs to the category of pure electric cleaning vehicle.
Small pure electric sanitation vehicles dominate
As of the announcement of vehicle manufacturers and products (batch 273) issued by the Ministry of industry and information technology, there are a large number of announced vehicles with a total mass of 2-2.5t, of which 17, 12, 25 and 15 are pure electric dump trucks, pure electric self loading and unloading trucks, pure electric carriage detachable trucks and pure electric bucket garbage trucks, respectively, accounting for the total number of announcements 1 / 30 of the amount. The number of vehicle announcements with a total mass of 3-3.5t also reached 40, accounting for nearly 1 / 5 of the total number of announcements. It can be seen that small pure electric sanitation vehicles with total mass less than 3.5t occupy the mainstream of the market.
Production enterprises of pure electric sanitation vehicles increase
As of the announcement of vehicle manufacturers and products (batch 273) issued by the Ministry of industry and information technology, there are 153 announcements from the top 15 enterprises of pure electric sanitation vehicles, accounting for 73.9%. Among them, chengli special purpose vehicle Co., Ltd. is the first group of refitting enterprises to have the announcement of pure electric sanitation vehicles (the 263rd batch of announcement of vehicle manufacturers and products). The announcement models of pure electric sanitation vehicles issued by the two enterprises are pure electric garbage compression vehicle and pure electric vacuum cleaner respectively.
From the first batch of pure electric sanitation vehicle product announcement issued in the 193rd batch of vehicle manufacturers and products announcement to the 273rd batch of pure electric sanitation vehicle product announcement, the number of production enterprises with pure electric sanitation vehicle announcement has increased from 2 at the beginning to 46, and the number of pure electric sanitation vehicle announcements has also increased from 2 at the beginning to 207. So far, some pure electric sanitation vehicles produced by refitting enterprises are not included in the announcement, which belong to pure electric sanitation machinery and do not need vehicle announcement or have no qualification for vehicle announcement. Some pure electric sanitation vehicles developed by sanitation vehicle manufacturers are being declared or publicized.
Analysis of key parts of pure electric sanitation garbage truck
At present, the chassis of domestic pure electric sanitation garbage truck is generally based on the chassis platform of traditional commercial vehicles. On the premise of keeping the chassis frame unchanged and the working principles of steering system, transmission system and braking system unchanged, the corresponding power changes and structural adjustments are made, and the electric drive system, power battery system and energy management system of pure electric vehicles are developed and arranged. When selecting the chassis of pure electric sanitation vehicle, the type, total mass and working characteristics of the modified vehicle must be considered, and the chassis power battery and driving motor must be coordinated with the upper structure.
The chassis of pure electric sanitation vehicle mainly uses lithium iron phosphate battery, and some chassis uses lead-acid battery, ternary lithium-ion battery and lithium manganese battery.
LiFePO4 battery has the advantages of more mature technology, high safety, low price, larger capacity, wider working temperature range, longer service life and higher specific energy compared with lead-acid battery. In the previous period, LiFePO4 battery has become the mainstream power lithium battery used in pure electric sanitation garbage truck.
Compared with ternary lithium-ion battery, LiFePO4 battery has poor low-temperature performance and low specific power. With the progress of technology, the safety of ternary lithium battery has been improved and solved. More and more domestic new energy vehicle enterprises are equipped with ternary lithium batteries with larger capacity, higher specific energy and better low-temperature performance for new pure electric vehicles. In order to meet the demand of longer driving range and higher load of pure electric sanitation garbage truck, the development trend of power battery for pure electric sanitation vehicle is to replace lithium iron phosphate battery with light-weight ternary lithium battery in the future.
In the type of garbage collection and transfer vehicles, except for the pure electric car detachable garbage truck, other vehicles need to start and stop frequently for transfer and loading operation in the process of work. The transfer operation generally takes a long time and is in the low speed driving state for a long time. In other words, the drive motor of pure electric sanitation garbage truck usually requires frequent starting and stopping, acceleration and deceleration, high torque at low speed and climbing, and low torque at transition driving. Therefore, the chassis of pure electric sanitation vehicle needs to select the drive motor with small weight, small size, high power density, high torque density, high efficiency and good reliability according to the working characteristics, speed and load of various sanitation vehicles.
Permanent magnet synchronous motor is widely used in the electric drive system of the existing pure electric sanitation garbage truck, and AC asynchronous motor is also used in some models. Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has the advantages of high control precision, high torque density, high power density, high efficiency, small volume, low noise, good torque stability and so on. Therefore, with the reduction of PMSM cost and the improvement of reliability, PMSM drive system will be more widely used in pure electric sanitation garbage truck.
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